What is the optimum way to use fertilizers to minimize disease?

Using a general fertilizer recommendation is no more than a guess. The best approach would be to use soil, plant and water analysis in order to adjust the fertilizer program according to the specific conditions in your field. Limiting Factors That Affect Crop Yiel Use of a urease inhibitor (enhanced efficiency fertilizer) minimizes the volatilization loss of N from urea or UAN fertilizer applied on the surface with no or delayed incorporation. Incorporate manure where practical. Ideally, manure should be incorporated as soon as possible into soil if it hasn't been injected directly Soil and water conservation measures, optimum plant population, and effective management of pests, weeds, and diseases contribute substantially to improved fertilizer use efficiency. Tandon (1980) showed that improved management practices could give tenfold increase in yield of sorghum and increase fertilizer use efficiency 3.5 times

Efficient Use of Fertilizers One of the most important ways the grower can conserve fertilizer energy is making efficient use of fertilizer. Economists generally recommend that increasing amounts of fertilizer should only be used when the additional value of yield realized exceeds the cost of nutrients applied PRECISE FERTILIZATION Precise use of fertilizers contributes to the increase in crop yields more than any other technique. To maximize crop yields and prevent nutrient losses to soil, water and air, fertilizers must be applied more efficiently This is the optimum time to fertilize. This is especially true of centipede and St. Augustine grasses. When these turfgrasses are fertilized too early, they turn yellow from stress. The nitrogen in the fertilizer causes more shoot growth than the root system can support, which can cause large patch disease to develop

Optimizing Fertilizer Application Rate

fertilizers increase the severity of disease whereas ammo-nium fertilizers decrease it (Huber & Haneklaus, 2007). An additional overlooked issue in plant pathology is the potential shape of the curve describing the relationship between fertilizer dose and disease severity. In its simplest form a first order linear equation could be used to. This past year I applied the least amount of fertilizer on my greens than I ever had without adding any additional products that allow me to use less fertilizer. On the greens that weren't damaged last winter I applied just over 84kg N/ha (1.7 lbs of nitrogen per 1000 sq ft) for the year The way plants use P isn't affected by the liquid or dry property of the fertilizer. Plant nutrient use in both liquid and dry fertilizers is affected by factors such as: Method of application. Crop and root growth characteristics. Soil test levels. Climatic conditions. The amount of water in a fluid fertilizer is insignificant compared to. Low pH can affect fertilizer use efficiency and reduce Nitrogen (N) uptake by 30 to 35 percent, phosphorus (P) by 45 to 50 percent and potassium (K) by 10 to 15 percent. This translates into an economic loss of fertilizer dollars. Therefore, many producers do not soil test, but still fertilize their soils regularly to avoid this expense Fertilizers can be important to the plants in the following ways: Fertilizers increase plants' tolerance towards pests. This has reduced their reliance on insecticides and herbicides, thereby, producing healthier crops. Consequently, diseases have reduced, providing aesthetic value to the crops

Nutrient Management to Improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency and

  1. Apply natural fertilizers, such as manure or compost, to feed soil and plants: Spray synthetic insecticides to reduce pests and disease: Spray pesticides from natural sources; use beneficial insects and birds, mating disruption or traps to reduce pests and disease: Use synthetic herbicides to manage weed
  2. Lawns need food. The best way to provide your lawn with essential nutrients is through regular fertilization. Fertilize with Milorganite four (4) times per year at the recommended rates. Using Milorganite ® as the primary fertilizer in your lawn care strategy is good for your lawn and the environment
  3. NANO FERTILIZERS IS A NEW WAY TO INCREASE NUTRIENTS USE EFFICIENCY IN CROP PRODUCTION fertilizer nutrient use efficiency and reduce doses. According to [5], reported that Optimum use of.
  4. If your soil test report recommends applying 1.5 pounds of nitrogen, 0.5 pound of phosphate, and 0.5 pound of potash per 1,000 square feet, you should apply a fertilizer with a ratio of 3-1-1 since you need three times as much nitrogen as phosphate and three times as much nitrogen as potash
  5. Ammonium nitrate, a good source of nitrogen and ammonium for plants, is an important ingredient in the production of high quality, effective fertilizers. Ammonium nitrate is produced using anhydrous ammonia, a gas that can become explosive when mixed with air
  6. Spreading a half-rate of fertilizer in two directions for each application helps prevent stripping. Apply fertilizer to dry grass, and water well immediately afterward. Sweep up all fertilizer that lands on paved or impervious areas to prevent it from washing into the storm sewer

Watermelons require ample potassium and phosphorus for optimal melon production. What Fertilizers to Use on Watermelon. How you are going to fertilize watermelon plants and with what type of fertilizer are best determined by a soil test prior to sowing or transplanting. In the absence of a soil test, it's a good idea to apply 5-10-10 at the. Methods of applying fertilizer Three ways to apply fertilizer are described below. Regardless of the method you use, keep the following facts in mind: • The nitrogen in chemical fertilizers is highly water-soluble and is carried to the roots by irrigation and rain. Thus, you don't need to mix 1 At times, the most efficient way to achieve this is to apply slow release fertilizers which are designed to release nutrients over a relatively long period of time. Slow release fertilizers contain one or more plant essential elements. They can be categorized by the way in which these elements are released

Fertilizers - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Using the right fertilizers will ensure that your plants produce the best and most vibrant blooms. We have reviewed the best fertilizers available on the market to help you find the correct one. The ideal fertilizer will have the right ratio of potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen 1. Water your lawn. A few days before you feed your lawn, give it a good watering. That will help ensure your soil is ready to accept lawn fertilizer. 2. Pick the best spreader for your lawn. Spreaders fall into two main categories: broadcast and drop. Scroll down to learn more about spreaders and the best ways to use them in your lawn The disease-causing fungus readily attacks the lush growth of grass that nitrogen promotes. Avoid fast-release forms of nitrogen fertilizer. Irrigate grass only when.

Energy-Efficient Use of Fertilizer and Other Nutrients in

A Homeowner's Guide to Fertilizer: Understanding the Fertilizer Label : All fertilizer labels have three bold numbers. The first number is the amount of nitrogen (N), the second number is the amount of phosphate (P 2 O 5) and the third number is the amount of potash (K 2 O). These three numbers represent the primary nutrients (nitrogen(N) - phosphorus(P) - potassium(K)) Nitrogen use efficiency is also significantly increased by P fertilization. Optimal soil phosphorus level in your soil should be about 46lbs/acre. Potassium on the other hand should be applied at the removal rate. Nitrogen, however, requires some timing and proper manipulations to get good yields and reduce losses

OPTIMUM prior to or in the early stages of disease development provides the best control or suppression of the targeted plant disease . Use the stated maximum label rates and shorter spray intervals for conditions conducive to threatening or rapid disease development For proper application, determine the number of Use the following as a guide to help you minimize the most common or problematic toxin sources: Detox Your Food and Water Toxin expert, Joseph Pizzorno, ND, says that 70 percent of your toxin load comes from food — specifically Standard American Diet (SAD) foods and food additives, as well as how we cook, store and reheat food Using the right fertilizers will ensure that your plants produce the best and most vibrant blooms. We have reviewed the best fertilizers available on the market to help you find the correct one. The ideal fertilizer will have the right ratio of potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen Make Homemade Fertilizers by Using What Your Animals Give You. There are many other ways to make your own homemade fertilizers, and some are easier to make than others. It doesn't get much easier than using manure from your animals. For eons, man used free fertilizer from manure to fertilize his crops For strategies to reduce disease with nitrogen nutrition, it is recommended to maintain a balanced fertilizer program with a full sufficiency of nitrogen for optimum plant growth and yield. Also, nitrogen has to be applied appropriately in order to avoid periods of excessive nitrogen supply or nitrogen deficiency

Fertilizer Optimization - Combining Research and Big Dat

Given my grass and soil type I use three types of fertilizer on my lawn. For overseeding and new grass I use a starter fertilizer (24-25-4). During the summer I use a a 30-0-3 such as this one from Scotts. For my fall application, I use a fertilizer with a higher amount of phosphorous (32-0-10) Amazon link If you fertilize and water too late in the day and the lawn is still wet when the cool night temperatures arrive, it will become more susceptible to contracting a fungal disease. Fertilizing your lawn in the morning enables you to take advantage of cooler temperatures and morning dew to reduce the risk of burning the grass Avoid getting fertilizer on the plant foliage. To apply a sidedress material, make a small trench with a hoe or garden plow about four inches from the plant on both sides of the row and about one to two inches deep (see diagram). Scatter the fertilizer down the trench, cover with soil, and water, if possible For fall fertilization, apply less than half a pound of nitrogen per 1,000 sq. ft. to minimize spring dead spot. For optimal results, feed your lawn during the fall season by applying the Lawnifi Fall Fertilizer Box. The Fall Fertilizer Box was designed to help your grass recover from the heat of summer and prepare for winter dormancy

optimum production. Wet soils create conditions suitable for diseases that may kill seedlings, reduce forage yield, and kill established plants. You can reduce some disease problems associ-ated with poor drainage by selecting varieties with high levels of resistance and by using fungicides for establish-ment. Poor soil drainage also reduce Avoid using fertilizers containing less than 1/3 WIN (thereby avoiding buildup of slow release nitrogen in the green). This program should be used as a guide only. Nevertheless, experience of the greens superintendent will determine the final fertilizer applications. As a rule of thumb, color and growth dictate fertilizer needs

Fish emulsion fertilizer is a type of organic fertilizer produced for use on garden plants and vegetables. It is made from byproducts of the fish industry, with a typical nutrient ratio of 5-2-2 or 5-1-1, meaning it is high in nitrogen and, therefore, particularly beneficial for green leafy plants, and lawns Selecting and Using Inorganic Fertilizers. Homeowners recognize the need for timely fertilizer applications to enhance plant growth in landscapes and gardens. However, the number of different products on the market can be overwhelming. Nursery and garden supply stores commonly stock a dozen or mor..

Keep your lawn disease-free with these tips from UGA

Using fertilizer for lawns is an effective way to prevent disease and pest damage and minimize maintenance. But what type of lawn fertilizer should you use? There are time-release fertilizers that are beneficial for feeding the lawn over many months and prevent the gardener from having to remember to feed again at a certain time Place a lid on the water container, leaving a small section open so the steam can escape. Heat until the water starts boiling and steam comes out. Do this for 30 minutes. On the stove fill a saucepan with 1″ of water and bring to a boil. Add enough soil to come just below the rim of the pan. Simmer for 15 minutes Reduce the use of fertilizer and pesticides. Farmers should try to improve nutrition management so that fertilizer and pesticides are not used in excessive amounts in order to mitigate the agricultural pollution problem. This means to determine in a scientific way how much pesticides and fertilizer are necessary to get a reasonable crop yield However, specialists have found that as much as 120 kg/ha more nitrogen fertilizer and 30% more irrigation water was applied each year than was required to obtain an optimal crop yield. [13]. Farmers are using much more fertilizers than needed, which also requires large quantities of water To find out if you are being smart about phosphorus, get a soil test. You can order a Home Lawn and Garden Soil Test Mailer at the MSU Extension Bookstore for $25. There are tests for lawns, trees, shrubs, vegetable and flower gardens, and fruit trees. The goal is to keep your plants green and the water blue

Mid-Spring. Use well-balanced fertilizer Medina 12-4-8. 1.5 pounds per 1000 sq ft. Summer. Only fertilize when the grass is light green or yellow. Use 5 pounds per 1000 sq ft. Early Fall. Use a high-potassium and a low-phosphorus fertilizer Scotts 32-0-10. It should have a slow-release form of nitrogen Cheap, dyed mulch is generally made from scrap soft woods and these will use higher amounts of nitrogen in the soil as they break down. For this same reason, sawdust can also be used as a mulch to help reduce nitrogen in the soil. When you have too much nitrogen in soil, your plants may look lush and green, but their ability to fruit and flower. Always apply inclusive fertilizers according to directions. Be careful not to over fertilize with nitrogen. No more than roughly one pound per 1,000 square feet of yard is needed. The best way to add nitrogen to your established lawn and encourage microbial growth is to spread compost once every year (more on this below) Smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, accounting for more than 480,000 premature deaths every year, or nearly 1 in 5 deaths.; Tobacco use leads to more than $300 billion in medical costs and lost productivity each year.; While the adult cigarette smoking prevalence has fallen to 14.0%, it remains higher among certain populations, including adults. The rate of starter fertilizer depends on the salt content, or index, of the fertilizer, the distance between the fertilizer and the seed, and the soil texture. Use of pop-up fertilizer placed in direct contact with the sorghum seed is more risky, but can be done successfully by precisely metering a lower rate

Fertilization affects severity of disease caused by fungal

An optimal level of non- HDL cholesterol is less than 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 3.37 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Higher numbers mean a higher risk of heart disease. To calculate your cholesterol ratio, divide your total cholesterol number by your HDL cholesterol number For example, if a 100-pound bag of fertilizer has an N-P-K ratio of 5-7-4, it contains 5 pounds of nitrate, 7 pounds of phosphate (which contains phosphorus), 4 pounds of potash (which contains potassium) and 84 pounds of filler. Note that the N-P-K ratio of organic fertilizers is typically lower than that of a synthetic fertilizer Soil pH that is outside the optimum range of 6.0-6.5 will adversely affect the availability of all other applied nutrients. The second most important component of your fertility program should be nitrogen, followed by potassium and sulfur. The lowest priority of your fertility program should be phosphorus. Fertilizer Recommendations 2021 PD If you have been looking for a way to reduce your risk of heart disease, lower your cholesterol, get your blood pressure under control and ultimately Save Your Heart, then the Pauling Therapy is for you! The Pauling Therapy Essentials Formula is an easily dissolvable powder that you can mix with water or juice Pesticide and fertilizer use has steadily increased alongside it. Nutrients essential to optimal plant growth are supplied by fertilizers, and pesticides that kill the weeds, insects, and animals that harm these crops, also help to boost production. Fertilizer Use In the United State

Split nitrogen fertilizer application in two or more treatments. Excessive use of fertilizer can increase blast intensity. Flood the field as often as possible. Silicon fertilizers (e.g., calcium silicate) can be applied to soils that are silicon deficient to reduce blast. However, because of its high cost, silicon should be applied efficiently The amount and frequency of fertilizer applications depend on the amount of traffic on the grass, the level of desired quality, and the type of fertilizer used. An optimum maintenance fertility program for St. Augustinegrass would require applying 4 pounds of actual nitrogen per 1,000 square feet of lawn per year

Instructions for using liquid fertilizer. There are still many ways to classify liquid fertilizers, but you have to choose the right one. To do this, you should first check whether there is a dedicated fertilizer for the species. Second, match the fertilizer to the life of the plant: For growth. For flowering Then use a rototiller or spade to cut each plant row to a 15 cm (6 inch) width. (Runner plants from the 6 inch strip of mother plants will form a new matted row of plants.) To prevent overcrowding of plants and reduce the incidence of leaf diseases, thin plants to 5 to 7 plants per 30 cm x 30 cm (1 square foot) Use new potting mix to fill trays. Don't reuse potting mix and don't use garden soil or compost. Clean all tools that will be used in planting and maintenance of the seedlings. Store them in a clean location when not in use. Use a heating pad under trays to warm soil to 70-75°F for indoor plant production

Overall, integrated pest management strategies should focus on the following: use of disease-free nursery trees, an optimal nutritional regime, reduction of the inoculum by frequent disease surveys, removal of symptomatic trees, and focused management of Asian citrus psyllid populations. Specific recommendations based on tree age are listed below Fertilizers banded into the soil should be applied at least 6 to 8 from the row in order to minimize root pruning. Use care so that plants are not damaged by equipment. Applying N fertilizer between every second row (similar to mid-row banding) is referred to as skip row application Using organic fertilizers, such as swine lagoon effluent or sludge or poultry litter, can offset the relatively high cost of synthetic fertilizers, such as urea and diammonium phosphate, that are commonly used to fertilize forest stands. Slower-release nutrients. Organic fertilizers release nutrients as organic materials decompose coordinated to avoid scalping. Optimal mowing heights for paspalum in home lawns will depend on the type of mower you use. If you use a reel mower, heights may range from 1/2 to 1 inch. With a rotary mower, mow from 1.5 to 2 inches. If you mow at heights greater than 2 inches, seashore paspalum will shade itself out and increase thatch production

Types. Although most turf grasses tolerate pH levels between 5.0 and 7.0, the preferred soil pH level varies with different grasses. An ideal range for Bermuda grass, zoysia grass and rough blue grass is 6.0 to 7.0. On the other hand, sheep fescue and velvet bent grass prefer pH levels between 5.0 and 6.0. Ornamental grasses generally tolerate. The best way to fight brown patch in St. Augustine grass is through prevention fertilize more than once and have a St. Augustine lawn, you are almost guaranteed to get brown patch disease. How to Apply Water Soluble Fertilizer Using the scoop provided (equivalent to 1 tablespoon), apply one scoop for every 1 gallon of water. A typical watering can holds 2 gallons of water, which would need 2 scoops of Water Soluble Fertilizer for optimal results. Be sure to check the size of your watering can and add accordingly Stroke is a complex disease with many causes, consequences and treatments. According to the statement, approximately 800,000 U.S. adults will have a new stroke each year, and 10% will die within.

Turf Hacker: Why Use Less Fertilizer

Understanding phosphorus fertilizers UMN Extensio

Reduce Overhead Costs. Look for ways to reduce hidden overhead costs. Direct crop inputs like seed, fertilizer and chemicals represent less than 40 percent of total costs of production on most farms. The difference between high-cost and low-cost producers generally isn't in these areas Fertilizers are very expensive and their efficient use is of great importance to reduce the production cost of agricultural crops. It is essential that a maximum amount of fertilizer used during cultivation finds its way into the plant and that the minimum is lost. Radioisotopes are very useful in estimating the amount of phosphorus an

Improving hay production - Does proper fertilization pay

The distribution and use of pathogen-free planting material (clean seeds) is a promising method to control plant diseases in developing countries. We address the question of minimizing disease prevalence in plants through the optimal usage of clean seeds. We consider the simplest possible S-I model together with a simple economic criterion to be maximized Use lifestyle modification to keep your pressure as low as possible. Stay lean, exercise regularly, limit your alcohol to two drinks a day, reduce stress, and eat right. 5. Improve your blood sugar. Diabetes is an important risk factor for dementia. You can help prevent diabetes by eating right, exercising regularly, and staying lean Figure 1: Use the fall soil nitrate test for nitrogen recommendations in the shaded counties. Optimum yields of this crop depend on efficiently using nitrogen (N) fertilizers. You can base N use guidelines on the results of a soil NO 3--N test or considering the combination of expected yield, previous crop and soil organic matter content Environmental pollution has many facets, and the resultant health risks include diseases in almost all organ systems. Thus, a chapter on air and water pollution control links with chapters on, for instance, diarrheal diseases (chapter 19), respiratory diseases in children and adults (chapters 25 and 35), cancers (chapter 29), neurological disorders (chapter 32), and cardiovascular disease. Correcting soil acidity and supplying a good balance of Ca and Mg fertility is important to ensuring pasture productivity, keeping legumes in the species mix, and animal health and performance. The target soil pH for pasture soils should be pH 6.5 or even as high as 6.8 to 7.0 when alfalfa is in the pasture mix

What Are Fertilizers? - Types, Uses And Advantages Of

Selecting the right trees and shrubs and understanding how to cultivate them with proper irrigation, mulching and soil care is the foundation for successful organic and naturally based tree care. From the very beginning, Bartlett Tree Experts has been a pioneer in the tree care industry, leading the way in the use of innovative practices. The optimum soil temperature for germination is 21-29°C(70-85°F). A heat mat can be used to warm the flats if required. Seedlings will emerge within 8-25 days and after the seedlings has developed two sets of true leaves then they can be moved to a larger (3-4 in) pot. Seedlings should be provided with ample light and adequate fertilizer The FAO's World Fertilizer Outlook report projected that of all world regions, sub-Saharan Africa will see the fastest growth in fertilizer demand between 2014 and 2018; at 4.7 percent, this rate is much higher than the world average of 1.8 percent. To increase fertilizer use to the levels of aspired to by the Abuja Declaration, there will. Improving Water Quality in Your Neighborhood When people think of pollution or excess nutrients making their way into surface and groundwater systems, we often imagine industrial plants or large farms as the primary sources. But residents, businesses and visitors also contribute excess nutrients and other pollutants to South Florida's lakes, rivers and wetlands

PK fertilizers build a stable and balanced level of nutrients in the soil. It is the ideal solution when straw or crop residues are removed or where N use is restricted by nitrate vulnerable zone rulings. In PK fertilizers the secondary nutrients (S, Ca, and Mg) reduce the ris Nutrient management is the science and practice directed to link soil, crop, weather, and hydrologic factors with cultural, irrigation, and soil and water conservation practices to achieve optimal nutrient use efficiency, crop yields, crop quality, and economic returns, while reducing off-site transport of nutrients that may impact the environment. It involves matching a specific field soil. Use new containers for each planting and keep all equipment and the planting area clean of old potting media and debris. Avoid water and heat stress and do not over-fertilize plants. In addition, avoid fertilizers high in ammonium as a nitrogen. Adjust the pH of the potting medium to keep it below 6.0, preferably 5.5 Intensive animal farming is a relatively recent development in the history of agriculture, and the result of scientific discoveries and technological advances.Innovations from the late 19th century generally parallel developments in mass production in other industries in the latter part of the Industrial Revolution.The discovery of vitamins and their role in animal nutrition, in the first two. To reduce these immobilization losses, the fertilization strategy of placing the fertilizer away from residues (e.g. banding) can be utilized. Note that immobilization is only a temporary loss, since nitrogen that is tied up this way will later become available (after the microbes due and decompose)

lawn care in a nutshell. Set your mower as high as it will go (3 to 4 inches). Water only when your grass shows signs of drought stress and then water deeply (put a cup in your sprinkler zone and make sure it gets at least an inch of water). Fertilize with an organic fertilizer in the fall and spring It is advisable to wait until the vines begin to spread out. If you're using a granular fertilizer, you can choose a balanced one like a 10-10-10 or 5-5-5. Then read the label and follow the manufacturers' instructions for the exact dosage. You can use it at the rate of 1/2 pounds per 100 square feet The ideal ratio for potato fertilizer is 10-20-20 of N-P-K. Fish emulsion fertilizer can be applied to the soil around the plants at a rate of 3 gallons of liquid per 100 square feet of garden; diluted at 1 tablespoon of emulsion per gallon of water, this solution can be used weekly to water the growing potatoes Between 1960 and 1995, global use of nitrogen fertilizer increased sevenfold, and phosphorus use increased 3.5-fold ; both are expected to increase another threefold by 2050 unless there is a.

Chemical Fertilizer - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Broadcast a natural fertilizer in the fall or spring. Topdress with 1/2 inch of compost or natural fertilizer and rake into the grass. Use a seaweed extract as additional fertilizer. Focus on soil quality over time instead of a quick fix. Stop Weeds Without Harmful Chemicals. This is the hardest part to do naturally, but you can do it The way you mow your lawn can also make a difference. By leaving your grass a little longer -- usually between 2 ½ and 3 ½ inches -- you can usually improve your lawn's health. This is because. For example, an integrated soil-crop management system achieved 24 and 46% yield and NUE improvement, respectively, compared to current farming practices that inefficiently use N fertilizer (Chen et al., 2011, 2014 ). However, this research did not determine if this yield increase could be achieved in synergy with the proportion of N fertilizer Cannabis needs 4 things to grow well. Light, carbon dioxide, water, and nutrients. Leaves are responsible for the first two, while the roots focus on acquiring water and nutrients. Find out everything you need to know about properly feeding cannabis plants There are dozens of nutrients you can give to your plants

Lawn Care Tips Milorganite Fertilize

Healthy grass grows best in healthy soil, so the optimal way to practice organic lawn care for a lush yard—without harsh chemicals—is to create a nutrient-rich, robust foundation. Story continue Joyn Bio is a joint venture founded by Bayer and Ginkgo Bioworks developing probiotics for plants to provide growers with next generation solutions to their biggest challenges, including reducing reliance on fossil fuel intensive nitrogen fertilizers Quitting smoking: Among the many health benefits of stopping tobacco use are immediate improvements in cholesterol levels. Lowering stress: Stress can also cause cardiac issues and impact cholesterol levels. Figuring out ways to manage this healthily—as with yoga or meditation—can be another way to reduce LDL levels The trick, start with a low-intensity pedaling exercise of 5-10 minutes. Then, move on to a 3-5 minute moderate exercise. After that, do a combination of high-intensity (1-3 minutes), and moderate (3-5 minutes) exercise. Repeat for the next 20-30 minutes. After doing this set of exercises, be sure to cool down by pedaling a stationary.